Impacts of COVID-19 Pandemic on Three IVF Clinics of Jakarta, Indonesia: A Retrospective Qualitative and Quantitative Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Australia


Background: Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic also led to a reduction or even the suspension of elective
health services. These decisions affected in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs worldwide. Therefore, it is essential to map
the readiness of IVF clinics in providing safety in this situation and in the future.
Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective qualitative and quantitative research done in 2021 that involved three IVF
clinics of Jakarta, Indonesia. Those three clinics were government-owned, private-owned, and educational and training
center. The qualitative data of each clinic’s readiness towards COVID-19 was obtained from interviews with the clinics
staff. The quantitative data were collected from the clinics patients’ number and demographic data from 2019-2021 as well
as from COVID-19 databases. Both data sets were analysed descriptively and only for the quantitative analysis Stata version
16 was used.
Results: There were changes in the domiciles and number of patients attending the three clinics. The ratio of patients
from Jakarta increased while patients from outside Java Island decreased. There was a drop in annual patient numbers
in 2020. However, from June 2020 to December 2021, the number of monthly IVF cycles increased significantly by 3.5
cycles per month (P=0.001). There was no association between IVF patients’ attendance numbers and COVID-19 cases
(P=0.785). One of the clinics had a negative pressure operating theatre, which made them more confident in treating
patients with COVID-19 positive and made them even had higher IVF cycles started than the pre-pandemic period.
Conclusion: Those three clinics are prepared in facing COVID-19, as they complied with government regulations. As
the COVID-19 pandemic progressed, the number of patients gradually returned to normal.


Main Subjects


    1. Pignon B, Gourevitch R, Tebeka S, Dubertret C, Cardot H, Dauriac- Le Masson V, et al. Dramatic reduction of psychiatric emergency consultations during lockdown linked to COVID-19 in Paris and suburbs. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2020; 74(10): 557-559.
    2. Sparrow R, Dartanto T, Hartwig R. Indonesia under the new normal: challenges and the way ahead. Bull Indones Econ Stud. 2020; 56(3): 269-299.
    3. Mafham MM, Spata E, Goldacre R, Gair D, Curnow P, Bray M, et al. COVID-19 pandemic and admission rates for and management of acute coronary syndromes in England. The Lancet. 2020; 396: 381-389.
    4. Braithwaite J. Quality of care in the COVID-19 era: a global perspective. IJQHC Communications. 2021; 1(1): 1-3.
    5. Alonso A, Deans R, Nesbitt-Hawes E, Yazdani A, McCormack L, Koh YY, et al. Gynaecological and IVF procedures billed through the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2021; 61(4): 585-590.
    6. Ata B, Vermeulen N, Mocanu E, Gianaroli L, Lundin K, Rautakallio- Hokkanen S, et al. SARS-CoV-2, fertility and assisted reproduction. Hum Reprod Update. 2023; 29(2): 177-196.
    7. Lawi GFK. Saran ahli, sebaiknya tunda program hamil selama pandemi Covid-19. 2020.Availablefrom: (21 Sep 2021).
    8. Balasch J, Gratacós E. Delayed childbearing: effects on fertility and the outcome of pregnancy. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2011; 29(4): 263-273.
    9. Marom Haham L, Youngster M, Kuperman Shani A, Yee S, Ben- Kimhy R, Medina-Artom TR, et al. Suspension of fertility treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: views, emotional reactions and psychological distress among women undergoing fertility treatment. Reprod Biomed Online. 2021; 42(4): 849-858.
    10. Voice of Indonesia. Jakarta’s entry and exit prohibition scheme is constrained by many problems at border points. 2021. Available from: (23 Sep 2021).
    11. Cutting E, Catt S, Vollenhoven B, Mol BW, Horta F. The impact of COVID-19 mitigation measures on fertility patients and clinics around the world. Reprod Biomed Online. 2022; 44(4): 755-763.
    12. Uimonen M, Kuitunen I, Paloneva J, Launonen AP, Ponkilainen V, Mattila VM. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waiting times for elective surgery patients: a multicenter study. PLoS One. 2021; 16(7): e0253875.
    13. Manusubroto W, Wicaksono AS, Tamba DA, Sudiharto P, Pramusinto H, Hartanto RA, et al. Neurosurgery services in Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, during the COVID-19 pandemic: experience from a developing country. World Neurosurg. 2020; 140: e360-e366.
    14. Wahba KA. Effect of fasting of ramadan on infertile women undergoing in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a prospective cohort study. Open J Obstet Gynecol. 2016; 06(03): 171-179.
    15. Daley A, Pallan M, Clifford S, Jolly K, Bryant M, Adab P, et al. Are babies conceived during Ramadan born smaller and sooner than babies conceived at other times of the year? A Born in Bradford Cohort Study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2017; 71(7): 722-728.
    16. Marom Haham L, Youngster M, Kuperman Shani A, Yee S, Ben- Kimhy R, Medina-Artom TR, et al. Suspension of fertility treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic: views, emotional reactions and psychological distress among women undergoing fertility treatment. Reprod Biomed Online. 2021; 42(4): 849-858.
    17. Harzif AK, Santawi VPA, Wijaya S. Discrepancy in perception of infertility and attitude towards treatment options: Indonesian urban and rural area. Reproductive BioMed Online. 2020; 114(3): 1-7.
    18. Domar AD, Broome A, Zuttermeister PC, Seibel M, Friedman R. The prevalence and predictability of depression in infertile women. Fertil Steril. 1992; 58(6): 1158-1163.
    19. Vaughan DA, Shah JS, Penzias AS, Domar AD, Toth TL. Infertility remains a top stressor despite the COVID-19 pandemic. Reprod Biomed Online. 2020; 41(3): 425-427.
    20. Nashwan AJ, Mohamed AS, Kelly DR. Editorial: nursing education in the emergence of COVID-19. Open J Nurs. 2020; 10(6): 595-597.
    21. Nashwan AJ, Abujaber AA, Mohamed AS, Villar RC, Al-Jabry MM. Nurses' willingness to work with COVID-19 patients: the role of knowledge and attitude. Nurs Open. 2021; 8(2): 695-701.
    22. Hernández C, Valdera CJ, Cordero J, López E, Plaza J, Albi M. Impact of telemedicine on assisted reproduction treatment in the public health system. J Healthc Qual Res. 2020; 35(1): 27-34.
    23. World Health Organization. Preventing and mitigating COVID-19 at work: policy brief,19May2021.2021121.Availablefrom:
    24. Qian H, Zheng X. Ventilation control for airborne transmission of human exhaled bio-aerosols in buildings. J Thorac Dis. 2018; 10 Suppl 19: S2295-S2304.
    25. Rosenbaum RA, Benyo JS, O'Connor RE, Passarello BA, Williams DR, Humphrey BD, et al. Use of a portable forced air system to convert existing hospital space into a mass casualty isolation area. Ann Emerg Med. 2004; 44(6): 628-634.