Document Type : Original Article
Department of Biology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Department of Anatomy, Neuroscience Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
A&S Research Institute, Ministry of Science Research and Technology, Tehran, Iran
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common type of endocrinopathy in women which is accompanied by androgens elevation, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction. Eugenol is a phenolic component of clove oil that has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-diabetic activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of eugenol on the PCOS models of rats.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty adults female Wistar rats weighing between 180 and 200 g were used. Estradiol valerate-induced PCOS rats (4 mg/rat) were treated with eugenol (12 and 24 mg/kg) for 28 days. The effects of eugenol were studied on levels of glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes, reproductive hormones, oxidative stress, and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (Ppar-α) genes, using biochemical analysis of blood and histopathological evaluation of ovaries.
Results: Estradiol valerate-induced PCOS resulted in the formation of cystic follicles in the ovaries, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperandrogenism, and anovulation. It altered the Cox-2 and Ppar-α gene expression and increased oxidative stress and activities of liver enzymes. Eugenol treatment improved the PCOS-associated endocrine and metabolic disorder and histopathological alterations, mostly through antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti hyperlipidemic, and anti-androgenic properties. It showed beneficial effects on serum glucose, serum insulin, fat profile, reproductive hormones, liver activity, oxidative stress, expression of Cox-2 and Ppar-α genes, as well as restoration of normal ovulation in the PCOS animals.
Conclusion: Eugenol could represent a promising natural product to prevent PCOS or reduce its symptoms.