Past Issue

Volume 13, Number 3, Oct-Dec 2019 Pages: 236-239

Association of IL-1 and TNF-αLevels in Endometrial Secretion and Success of Embryo Transfer in IVF/ICSI Cycles

Nayyereh Khadem, M.D, 1, Mahsa Mansoori, M.D, 1, Matin Attaran, M.D, 1, *, Armin Attaranzadeh, M.D, 2, Elnaz Zohdi, M.D, 1,
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Department of Pathology, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
* Corresponding Address: P.O.Box: 91778-99191 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Mashhad Iran



In this work, we have determined the levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which function as cytokines in endometrial receptivity, through the endometrial secretion within the eligible individuals and thus studied their relationships with the success or failure of pregnancy in in vitro fertilization/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles.

Materials and Methods

In this prospective study, 76 women were selected for their first IVF/ICSI and met the study inclusion criteria. All of the patients have undergone the endometrial secretion aspiration prior to performing the oocyte collection. The levels of IL-1and TNF-α were analyzed by the means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, using special standard kits. The patients were requested to undergo the serum human chorionic gonadotropin measurements and ultrasound evaluation for the purpose of detecting successful implantations and pregnancies.


Among the 76 subjects of the study, 33 (43.4%) patients had a positive beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) and 44 (56.6%) resulted in a negative β-hCG. It should be also noted that through the patients with positive β-hCG, 23 (30.3%) of them displayed fetal heart rate in their transvaginal sonography (TVS). Compared to the group with failed pregnancies and their cytokine levels, we perceived a higher concentration of IL-1 in the group containing successful chemical pregnancies (P=0.00). However, there was no significant difference in terms of clinical pregnancy in the IL-1 levels between the two groups (P=0.06). In addition, there was not any notable difference in the levels of TNF-α between the two groups, neither in terms of chemical nor clinical pregnancy (P=0.8 and P=0.6, respectively).


The current study suggests that higher concentrations of IL-1 in endometrial secretions could be as- sociated with improved endometrial receptivity and IVF outcome. With regards to TNF-α, no statistically significant difference was observed between the groups of with and without successful pregnancies.