Past Issue

Volume 7, Number 4, Jan-Mar 2014, Pages: 245-252

Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part I. Fallopian Tube

Firoozeh Ahmadi, M.D., Fatemeh Zafarani, M.Sc., *, Gholam Shahrzad, M.D.,
* Corresponding Address: P.O. Box 16635-148 Department of Reproductive Imaging at Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine ACECR Tehran Iran Email:


Female genital tuberculosis (TB) remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Genital TB is commonly asymptomatic, and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools, such as computerized tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpingography is still the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG) from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and "leopard skin tube". Part II describes adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings such as "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes, "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudounicornuate" uterus and "Collar-stud abscess", which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases.